This 'wheel within a wheel' describes the relationship between strategic management and business unit management in a large company. There are actually several separate business units, of course, each with its own set of metrics, goals, targets and initiatives. But this figure illustrates the idea that the business activities constitute the DO part of the overall strategic effort.

* Note: The PDCA cycle was in fact originally developed by Walter A, Shewhart, a Bell Laboratories scientist who was Deming's friend and mentor, and the developer of Statistical Process Control (SPC) in the late 1920s.  So sometimes this is referred to as the "Shewhart Cycle".  There are also several recent variations on this concept.   See The Man Who Discovered Quality by A. Gabor, Penguin Books, 1990.